Protein is the most indispensable nutrient that supplies essential and non-essential amino acids. These essential amino acids are necessary for body building and tissue repairs. Protein is the one of the three macro-nutrients, which is nutrient the body needs in large amounts. The other macro-nutrients are fats and carbohydrates. Protein plays role in many body processes including blood clotting, fluid balance, immune system responses, vision, hormones and enzymes. Proteins are large bio-molecules and macro-molecule that comprise one or more long chain of amino acids resides.
There are seven types of protein, namely antibodies, contractile protein, enzymes, hormonal protein, structural protein, storage protein, and transport protein. Protein are built as chains of amino acids, which are then folded into unique three-dimension shape. High blood protein (hyper proteinemia) is an increase in the concentration of protein in the blood stream. This is not a specific or condition in itself, but it might indicate that one has a disease. Protein helps in the formation of hormones, enzymes and antibodies. It serves as source of energy in the absence of carbohydrate. It helps to build and repair muscle, organs, and bones. High protein diets have also been shown to be helpful with reducing fat, losing weight, increasing satisfy or a feeling of fullness and retaining muscle.
Excess protein consumed in usually stored as fat while the surplus of amino acid is excreted. Protein is a source of calorie for protein and carbohydrate contain four calories per gram. Healthy sources of protein include grass fed lean meat as well as pasture raised poultry, wild fish, eggs from pastured hens, grass fed and organic dairy, legumes, nuts and whole grains. The recommended allowance for protein for adult men and women 18-35 years of age and daily dietary allowance is one gram per kilogram of body weight (1g/kg). It is also recommended that the dietary allowance for infant should be increased as they grow up while adult men and women should decrease their allowance as they add years. Extra protein is needed by pregnant women, lactating mothers, early adolescents and individual under Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Stress and post-surgery patients get recommendation of 50grams of protein a day as part of the calorie diet. Eating large amount of protein can lead to bad breath, especially if one restricts carbohydrates intake. This could be in part because our body goes into metabolic state called Ketosis, which produces chemicals that give off an unpleasant fruity smell.
Solution includes brushing and flossing, but may not get rid of the smell. One can double water intake, brush the teeth more often, and chew gun to counter some of these effects. Constipation can occur with high protein diet that restricts carbohydrates that are typically low in fibre. In this case, it is important to increase water and fibre intake to prevent constipation. Eating too much dairy or processed food, coupled with a lack of fibre can cause diarrhea. This is especially true if one is lactose-intolerant or consume protein source such as fried meat, fish and poultry. On what to do, eating heart-healthy protein instead to avoid diarrhea and drinking plenty of water is ideal. Avoid caffeinated beverages, limit fried food and excess fat, fat consumption and increase fibre intake. Dehydration makes the body to flush out excess nitrogen with fluid and water. This can leave one dehydrated even though one may not feel more thirsty than usual.
Hence, drinking of plenty of water is required to prevent kidney damage for express protein can cause damage in people with preexisting kidney disease. This is because of the excess nitrogen found in the amino acids that make up proteins. Damaged kidneys have to work harder to get rid of the extra nitrogen and water product of protein metabolism. Studies have shown that certain high protein diet that are particularly highly in red meat-based protein are linked to increased risk of various healthy issues including cancers such as colorectal, breast and prostrate. Eating large amount of red meat and high fat had been shown to increase the risk of coronary heart disease in women. Eating poultry, fish and nut lowered the risk while calcium loss happens in diets that are high in protein and meat that may cause calcium loss, which is sometimes associated with osteoporosis and poor bone health. Therefore, nurses, doctors and dietitians can help in maintaining good health by weighing the pros and cons of high protein diet consumption based on individual needs remembering what is key is to always eat healthy and balanced diet and also engage in active lifestyles.